Monday, May 25, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 506 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/07/02 Category People Essay Level High school Tags: Civil Disobedience Essay Mahatma Gandhi Essay Did you like this example? Ã For a long time people have fought for freedom and liberty against those that oppress them. One example of civil disobedience was Gandhis Mahatma also known as The Great Soul because he was an influential person who fought for the equality of the people of India. Gandhis ideals come from being influenced by his devoted mother about Hinduism and Jainism believing in nonviolence and respecting all religions. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Gandhis Act Of Civil Disobedience" essay for you Create order One way he demonstrated his discontent was by marching 241 miles on the coastal town of Dandi to the Arabian sea. This is seen as an act of civil disobedience because he was going against the British government in a peaceful manner by protesting non violently. He protested against the British due to the fact they refused to allow India to collect or sell salt. This act of civil disobedience was effective because even the British leaders acknowledged him as a force they could not suppress or ignore and finally granted Indias Independence on August 15, 1947.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Gandhis act of civil disobedience was a great way to limit the amount of tension between the British government and the protesters. In 1888 Gandhi sailed to England to study to become a lawyer his first job in an indian company required him to move to South Africa. Was discriminated on a train because he had a dark complexion and was forced to give up his seat and sit on the floor. Staying in Africa for 20 years to fight against their discriminatory laws the governmentÃ during that time the rulers were The boers (Descendants of white settlers) passed a law requiring all Indians to register with the police and be fingerprinted. Gandhi and a group of Indians refuse to obey the law and were put in jail. In jail Gandhi read the essay civil disobedience By David Henry Thoreau a 19th century American writer. Gandhi adopted the term civil disobedience to describe his strategy of non-violently refusing to cooperate with injustice. Instead preferring to use the sanskrit word satyagraha (meaning devotion to truth). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Returning to India to help fight the unjust laws of the British leading a group of 78 followers on a march to the Arabian sea defying the british authorities by making salt from the sea water. His followers and himself walked over 390 kilometers (241 mil) from their starting point at Sabarmati Ashram.Ã Gandhi addressed large crowds within each passing day an increasing amount of people joined their march also called the salt satyagraha. By the time they reached Dandi the Arabian town Gandhi was ahead of tens of thousands, speaking and leading prayers while walking toward the beach to make salt. Soon after civil disobedience broke out across all of india involving millions of indians causing authorities to arrest more than 60,000 people Ganhi himself was captured on May 5th but the protesters continued without him. After Gandhis arrest a new leader rose ,On may 21, the poet Sarojini Naidu led 2,500 protesters on the Dharasana Salt Works, some 150 miles nort h of Bombay. Several hundred british-led indian police men ,met the protestors and brutally beating the peaceful demonstrators.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
As technology advances, modern mass media platforms have changed the way the audience receives information. It is established that over the last few decades, there has been a significant difference between traditional means of mass media such as print and mails and the modern mass media communication channels. With the introduction of the Internet, a variety of media companies have improved means of producing and transmitting news using various platforms. As a result, convergence has occurred in the media space as communication networks are interlinked to share media content in the marketplace (Jenkins 2006, p. 2). This paper analyzes and provides examples of ways in which convergence has transformed the modern landscape of communications and media. Convergence in communication and media platforms refers to a phenomenon where the flow of media content, as well as technologies and standards of communication carriage, has blurred the traditional forms of media. According to Henry Jenkins (2006, p. 2), convergence is the flow of media content across a number of media channels. It also involves the interrelationship between different media channels, and the migratory behavior of audiences who search entertainment experiences from a media platform that suits them. In this sense, convergence in communications and media is associated with the technology in the media space and audience consumption patterns. Research shows that convergence in media and communications does not occurShow MoreRelatedSocial Media as a Business Tool1762 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Social Media as a Business Tool: In the digital age that is a major characteristic of the modern society, people are increasingly using social media as the major means of communication. Social media is used for communication because people have continued to leave conventional media in favor of the new revolution in communication. As engaging with social media has become a major characteristic in the modern day culture and working environment, the popularity of social media is a huge businessRead MoreMedia Landscape in the World940 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMedia Landscape in the World The New Modern Media October 12, 2012 The New Modern Media Watching TV while having morning coffee, listening radio on the way to work, checking Facebook before work, tweeting in the lunch break, and googling information related to work; that is the way the new modern media has changed our lives. To understand the term modern media more, Debashis Aikat(n.d.), Associate Professor and Media Futurist, has come up with a definition, Ã¢â¬Å"Modern media refers to mass communicationRead MoreAdvantage and Disadvantage of Technology1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search A parabolic satellite communication antenna at the biggest facility for satellite communication in Raisting, Bavaria, Germany Visualization from the Opte Project of the various routes through a portion of the Internet Telecommunication is the science and practice of transmitting information by electromagnetic means. Communication is talking to someone or thing not necessarily through technological means. TelecommunicationRead MoreBusiness and Employee use of Social Media.910 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescustomer on Twitter feed. How do you want your companys brand to be thought of on social media? We live in an age where consumers are plugged into social media constantly, and this affects their purchasing decisions, perceptions and habits. Any business that wants to retain its image as modern and capable, as well as listening to its customers has to embrace social media, and its employees are the front-line troops in this task. We will demonstrate how the proper use of social media can enhance the reputationRead MoreThe Impact Of Social Media On Society1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschange, and the future approached, but Andy may have underestimated just how true that is. Nowadays, the quote has been translated to fit the modern times, Ã¢â¬Å"everyone will be famous for 15mbÃ¢â¬ . The quote being changed to that says a lot about the times that we are going through right now, which is the age of technology. Ã¢â¬ËMbÃ¢â¬â¢ (megabyte) taking the place of Ã¢â¬ËminutesÃ¢â¬â¢ inside the quote expresses the general idea that society has become dominated by technology. With the growth of technology rose many thingsRead MoreThe Between Mass Media And Digital Media Essay1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdo multiple media forms. Broadly, convergence is the blending of multiple media forms into one platform for purposes of delivering a dynamic experience. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, media convergence can be described as a Ã¢â¬Å"phenomenon involving the interconnection of information and communications technologies, computer networks, and media content. It brings together the Ã¢â¬Å"three CÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âcomputing, communication, and contentÃ¢â¬âand is a direct consequence of the digitization of media content andRead MoreSocial MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s Effects on Modern Information Processing Essay1481 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesintroduction of social media into the world of information represents a massive shift on the landscape of information processing. Social media promises what industrial media canÃ¢â¬â¢t: a public voice, not just for experts, but for everyone. I believe that social media has made three important changes to the way humans handle information. First, it has changed who produces the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s information. Second, it has changed the process by which information is formed. Finally, it has actively encouraged theRead MoreMedia Use and Media Consumption in the Home Environment Essay1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhen approaching media audiences. It is dependent on the context of viewing, making media use and media consumption within the home environment and other contexts an interesting area of study. During the 1980s the emergence and increasing use of television increased media research into consumption in an everyday context, addressing the d omestic, the family and its contribution to daily life. The importance can be displayed through the centrality of the position of the television and how the arrangementRead MoreDiy Culture From A Youtube Video Blog1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTechnology In this digital age, Do-It-Yourself (DIY) content is one of the most searched subjects on the web, supported by modern advanced technology. Thus, this paper displays the way technology facilitates the development of DIY used on the Web, particularly Youtube. This paper explores the communities formed from online interactions between DIYers. This paper also investigates how technology allows DIYers to find values and the purpose of DIY in their personal lives. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Historically speaking,Read MoreThe Globalization of Animated Features and the Merging of Cultures1030 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBy using the inherent talents of its people to create digital media forms as anime, Japan has been spreading its culture and philosophy all over the globe, and this can be described as globalization. Up until recently, there were around 60 anime production companies, such as Crunchyroll and Funimation, and these companies Ã¢â¬Å"provided products in 112 countriesÃ¢â¬ that held approximately Ã¢â¬Å"87 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s populationÃ¢â¬ (Anonymous). Additionally, in 2010, the anime-related market in North America
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Research Question: What are effective methods for accommodating studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ with disabilities in inclusive settings in elementary schools? Preface The right to equal education should be in reach of all studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ regardless of their educational needs and backgrounds. The barriers that studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ with disabilities face are evident in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s public school education. We as educators sometimes ignore the capabilities of some of our disabled studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ and impede them from achieving their fullest potential. Inclusive education implementation has helped improve the quality of education offered to all children who attend school. To ensure that all our studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ receive quality and equal education policies and teacher practices must be inclusive of all learners. This research will look into inclusive settings and methods used by teachers to support children with disabilities. It will also explore the pros and cons of inclusive settings in elementary schools. Defining Disabilities Who do we consider disabled? How do we define disability? The term disability is a term that is used by many to describe a person who has mental or physical impairments. The term is often connected with visible forms of disabilities. Inclusive Education What is inclusive education? Inclusive education is educating students with special educational needs in the same classroom as a general education student. It rejects the idea of dividing students with disabilities with those who are not disabled. Inclusion isShow MoreRelatedAttention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )976 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbehavior as well as an increase in productivity within classroom environments as a whole. Although a few voices question the alternative approaches in accommodating ADHD affected students, the strategies applied have demonstrated academic success (Bussing et al., 2012). ADHD classroom intervention developments establish positive results from the methods and causes, and minimize opposition regarding the innovating trends used. Typically, once a child is diagnosed with ADHD, the treatment options areRead MoreTeaching Strategies For Children With Disabilities1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI am a sophomore in college and growing up I have always had a lot of love for children with disabilities. My parents taught me that everyone is not the same, but God made everyone in his image. A school in Arizona has a program named Reteach and Enrich that helps children with disabilities. Mariko Nobori states that Ã¢â¬Å"The goal of the program is to give disorder students the opportunity to master essential skills and knowledge before they move on to the next levelÃ¢â¬ (5 Strategies). It can be veryRead MoreCognitive Theory And Teaching Vocabulary Enhancement For Various Types Of Learners1620 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmathematics and science. Vocabulary knowledge and comprehension is crucial. Although there are many different causes for studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ shortfalls in reading comprehension, there are a variety of strategies to improve these deficits (Biemiller, 2006). This paper looks at the many studies performed on strategies for vocabulary enhancement for various types of learners, as well as instructional methods used to increase comprehension in the content areas. When considering vocabulary knowledge and comprehension inRead MoreI Am Working At London School Essay1513 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesI am working at London school, a comprehensive mixed secondary school with a population of around 1200 students. Located in a very vibrant locality, the school looks very decent and is very popular with the general public. Part of this, is due to its open door policy to the local community. The school hold a number of outdoor and indoor activities on a regular basis, most of them for free, which in return, has created a sense of togetherness and family ethos within the neighbourhood. The communityRead MoreInclusive Education For Children With Disabilities1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInclusive education is where children with disabilities receive special education services in the general education setting. Many factors can make inclusion difficult or complex. Accommodating instruction to meet the educational needs of all students is one of the most fundamental problems in education. Many argue that inclusive practices benefit all students. While others argue that inclusive education is inadequately designed to meet the needs of exceptional students. Benefits of inclusive education haveRead MoreThe Role Of Teacher s Is Particularly Complex1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagestodayÃ¢â¬â¢s classroom, the role of teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s is particularly complex, given the increasing educational needs of the diverse students attending. According to Ellis (2005), over the past 20 years classrooms in Australia have undergone significant transformations, with regard to changes in grading and streaming of students. This has lead to the diminishing of streaming and grading students into classes and groups solely based on their ability levels, resulting in classes of diverse ability that encompass extensiveRead More Teaching Children with Autism Essay1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslikely as an educator that you will have at least one child with this diagnosis in your classroom. This paper explores some of the methods used to teach autistic children. Autism is a disorder characterized by significant problems in communication and social functioning. Autism is actually called Autism Spectrum Disorder and encompasses a broad range disabilities such as Asperger syndrome, RettÃ¢â¬â¢s Syndrome, and Pervavasive Development Disorder (Dunlap Fox, n.d.). There are also varying degreesRead MoreEssay on Teacher Attitudes Towards Inclusion 1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2010; Jensen, McCrary, Krampe, Cooper, 2004; Jung, 2007; Short Martin, 2005; Smith Smith, 2000); examine the influence teacher preparation programs, coursework, and practicum experience have on novice teacher attitudes toward included students with disabilities (Algaryouti et al.; Berry; Brakenreed Barnett; Burke; Jung) and ways to increase inservice teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes of inclusive teaching (Daane, Lusk, Thompson; DeSimone Parmar; Elliot; Gurgur Uzuner; Smith Smith). Many of these studiesRead MoreCurriculum Development Interview. This Paper Will Summarize1748 Wor ds Ã |Ã 7 PagesDemographics of the School District In eastern South Dakota, the school district that the Curriculum Specialist contracts with has an enrollment of around 1,135 students. Out of this population of students, 14% are students with disabilities and 26% are economically disadvantaged. The district does not have any Native American students nor any English Language Learners, but about 2% of the population are Hispanic, Latino, and Multi-Racial. The population of the Non-Gap group (includes White/CaucasianRead MoreAnalysis Of Howard Gardner On Multiple Intelligences1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslearning the in the classroom, and can affect how well a student performs in a certain class. Intelligence also has a biological foundation, which means that the potential for a child to reach full mental capacity is determined by his or her genetics. However, intelligence is not completely biologically deterministic because the nurturing of the child can also affect how intelligent he or she can become, which can also take part in the c lassroom. Students have their strengths and weaknesses in certain subject
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
He is a detective. He is a hero. He is a mystery solving a mystery. Sherlock Holmes, the brilliant creation of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is perhaps the most illustrious detective in English literature. His literary presence in my development has produced the blossom of critical and analytical thought as features of my intellect and affection for literature. The paragon of truth through science and logic, his objective, reclusive mind is driven by an icy desire for the triumph of scientific reasoning over results intertwined with hot-blooded emotions. He is a solitary creature, not in fear of love or friendship, but instead due to a cautious instinct to preserve his gift, to keep it pure of adulterations like softer passions that could blur the parameters of logic. Holmes possesses neither supernatural abilities, nor any power out of manÃ¢â¬â¢s reach. His extraordinary instrument lies in his mind, and is not completely accredited to a genetic advantage, but instead is a result of yea rs of molding, developing, and perfecting. We will write a custom essay sample on The Human Hero or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He dominates an aptitude for deductive reasoning which needs only concrete facts to produce a genesis of blatant, but at the same time concealed solutions. HolmesÃ¢â¬â¢s service is not reserved only for the highbrow members of society, but also for the poorest factions in need of his gift. He is a humanitarian with a detached sympathy for the world and, although isolated, represents a different type of approachable hero. The notable difference between Holmes and other heroes is HolmesÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to relate to the public. Like ordinary people, Holmes is subject to worldly limitations, such as the necessity for money, and assistance from external authorities to consummate the closing of a case. In addition, his personal shortcomings, which include a vanity complex and a taciturn egotism, humanize him because they dismantle the illusion of perfection so typical of archetypal superheroes. It was this ostensible humanity within his character that first appealed to me. I came acros s this mystery series during a competition in my Gifted and Talented club during seventh grade. Albeit reluctant at first, I took on the challenge of reading a novel featuring the detective for the sake of helping my team. Reading the first few pages was enough to convince me that the novel was above my vocabulary level, the next few pages let me know that the novel was above my comprehensive level. However, the idiosyncratic distinction which set me apart from other classmates, my inherent craving to read compulsively, would not let me turn from this challenge. Gradually, the confounding mysteries and puzzles so characteristic of the Sherlock Holmes mysteries opened my mind to a new way of thinking. I found that my curiosity about the commonplace increased, my thirst for opportunities to use problem-solving skills enlarged, and my yearning to read was insatiable. In fact, the blend of this newfound inquisitiveness and my penchant for writing later stimulated my interest in journali sm and politics. I will always feel a sense of loyalty to Sherlock Holmes. His stories have taught me different ways to approach quandaries, have inspired the writer within me, and have elevated my reading level. His weaknesses removed him from the usual pedestal idols are placed on, and his talent and dedication motivated me to think outside of the box.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Human Capital, Human Assets Intellectual Capital Essay Example Human Capital, Human Assets Intellectual Capital Paper Human Capital, Human Assets Intellectual Capital Paper This essay discusses and explores the terms Human Capital, Human assets and Intellectual capital. Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing peoples skills and abilities as used in employment (Economic Review, 2004). According to Robert Heller, A business can realize the benefits of its greatest asset by winning the hearts, minds and spirit of people. Human assets are those personal qualities and characteristics that enhance the individual health, happiness and well being of each family member. The intellectual capital refers to the knowledge and knowing capability of a social collectivity such as an organization, intellectual community or professional practice (1998:245). The essay also focuses the way in which these terms are beneficial to HR managers to use these terms to assist themselves and communicating and planning human resource management strategies. Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing peoples skills and abilities as used in employment and otherwise contribute to the economy. It is a stock of asset one owns, which allows one to receive a flow of income, which is like interest earned. Human capital is substitutable i.e. it will not replace land, labor or capital totally, but it can be substituted for them to various degrees and be included as a separate variable in a production function. While explaining human capital by the unique characteristics of knowledge: it is expandable and self generating with use. For example, a doctor gets more experience, her knowledge base will increase, as will her endowment of human capital. A free worker cannot sell human capital to receive money revenues, even a slave, whose human capital can be sold, does not earn an income himself or herself instead the slave owner gets the income under capitalism, to earn an income, a worker must submit to the authority of an employer who want to hire for a specified period of time. This means that the employer must be receiving an adequate rate of profit from his or her operations, so that the workers must be producing surplus-value i.e. doing work beyond that necessary to maintain their labor power (www.marxist.org) Following Becker, the human capital literature often distinguishes between Specific and General human capital. Specific human capital refers to skills or knowledge that is useful only to a single employer, who will be likely willing to pay for it, where as general human capital such as literacy is useful to all employers. Thus human capital represents the single greatest potential asset and the single greatest potential liability that an organization will acquire as it goes about is business. While there are intangible assets, human capital is the only intangible assets that can be influenced, but never completely controlled, invested in wisely or wasted thoughtlessly and still have tremendous value. These distinguishing features are what make human capital unique. A business can realize the benefits of its greatest asset by winning the hearts, minds and spirit of the people (Robert Heller 2001). Human assets are those personal qualities and characteristics that enhance the individual health, happiness and well being of each family member. They include our health, values, talents, heritage, attitude, habits and time. While in case of a firms human assets consist of the employees and the collection of their knowledge, skills and abilities also known as human capital. The firm can buy the human capital by hiring employees and the firm can achieve human capital through, training, job experience etc. Most of the capabilities that a firm possesses can be linked to human capital and therefore this form of asset is considered critical for creating and sustaining competitive advantage (managing human assets in a uncertain world, 1999). However human assets, like other forms of assets have several uncertainties associated with it. The future value of human assets can be uncertain for example performance of employees may go down over time or job responsibilities may change causing a misfit between the person and job. The number of employees demand may fluctuate according to the market conditions. There may be demand unexpected for skills that the employees do not possess. Also, the costs of human assets in the form of wages, salaries, benefits etc, may also be uncertain. Human assets like other forms of assets have several uncertainties associated with it. There are three types of uncertainties in human assets uncertainty of return, uncertainties of volume and uncertainties of cost. Uncertainty of return. The future value of human assets can be uncertain. For example performance of employees may go down overtime or change in job responsibilities. Uncertainty of volume and combinations The number of employees demanded may fluctuate according to market conditions or unexpected demand for skills that the employees dont possess constitutes this uncertainty. Uncertainties of cost- They are associated with the high and fixed cost of employees especially when revenues are volatile. The top 10 areas to measure human assets, as recommended by Jack Fitz-enz, chair of the Saratoga Institute (now part of Spherions Human Capital Consulting Group), in a recent issue of Workforce magazine (www. workforce.com), wont all apply to your company, but some will: 1. Your most important issues: These are the targets of all lower-level measures. Focus on them and ensure that your metrics lead in a direct line to them. 2. Human capital value added: How do your workers optimize themselves for the good of the company and for themselves? This is the primary measure of an individuals contribution to profitability. 3. Human capital ROI: This is the ratio of dollars spent on pay and benefits to an adjusted profit figure. 4. Separation cost. How many people are leaving? From which departments? What does it cost the company? The average cost of separation for an employee is at least six months equivalent of revenue per employee. 5. Voluntary separation rate: Lost personnel equal potential lost opportunity, lost revenue, and the cost of workers having to fill the gaps under greater stress. Cutting the separation rate saves the cost of hiring and keeps customer service quality high. 6. Total labor-cost revenue percentage. This is total benefits and compensation cost as a percentage of organizational revenue and shows how much of what you are taking in through revenue goes to support the companys total labor cost, including temporary, seasonal, and contract or contingent workers. This metric can help you track changes in your workforce. Best approach: Compare it to your revenue factor and compensation, benefits, and contingent off-payroll costs. If the metric is rising, determine whether compensation or benefits costs are up or revenue is down. This will help you decide what actions to take. 7. Total compensation revenue percentage: This is the percentage of the companys revenues allocated to the direct costs of employees. It excludes costs for off-payroll employees who receive a 1099 form (as does the metric in number 6, above). Before creating strategies to address concerns, compare this metric to your revenue factor, compensation costs, and benefits costs to analyze what is happening with workers. 8. Training investment factor. Basic skills are crucial: Workers who cannot read, write, do simple calculations, or talk intelligently with customers need to have these skill deficiencies addressed. 9. Time to start. Recruitment will continue to be a challenge. The amount of the time it takes from approval of a job requisition until the person is on the job is a strategic indicator of revenue production. 10. Revenue factor. This is the basic measure understood by managers. The accumulation of exceptionally talented individuals is not enough for the organization. There must also be a desire for the employees to invest their skills and expertise in the organization and their position. The individuals must commit or engage with the organization if effective utilization of human capital is to happen. In addition, therefore, to human capital, there must also be social capital and organizational capital. These three forums of capital contribute to overall concept of intellectual capital. For Nahapiet Ghoshal (1998), intellectual capital refers to the knowledge and knowing capacity of a social collectivity, such as an organization, intellectual community or professional practice (1998:245) Intellectual capital consists of both people and systems. The stock of human capital consists of human i.e. the knowledge skills and abilities of people social capital is the valuable relationships among people and the organizational capital is the processes and routines within the firm. (Wright et. Al, 2001:716) Developing human capital therefore requires attention to these other complementarities. For a competitive advantage is to be achieved there must be integration between human, social and organizational capital, social capital increases the efficiency of action and aids cooperative behavior (Nahapiet Ghoshal 1998) Social relationship has an important influence on the development of both human and intellectual capital. For example individuals with better social capital and stronger contact networks will earn higher rates of return on their human capital (Garavan et.al 2001:52). Attending to the conditions, under which people are prepared to share and act upon their knowledge is a major component of human capital management. The principle role of organizational capital is to link the resources of an organization. Together into process that create value for customers and sustainable competitive advantage for the firm (Dess Picken 1999:11). Thus the connections between human capital, social capital and organizational capital will produce intellectual capital. The suggested measuring approaches for intangibles fall into four main categories of measurement approaches. These categories are an extension of the classifications suggested by Luthy (1998) and Williams (2000). 1. Direct Intellectual Capital methods (DIC) Estimate the $-value of intangible assets by identifying its various components. Once these components are identified, they can be directly evaluated, either individually or as an aggregated coefficient. 2. Market Capitalization Methods (MCM) Calculate the difference between a companys market capitalization and its stockholders equity as the value of its intellectual capital or intangible assets. 3. Return on Assets methods (ROA) Average pre-tax earnings of a company for a period of time are divided by the average tangible assets of the company. The result is a company ROA that is then compared with its industry average. The difference is multiplied by the companys average tangible assets to calculate an average annual earning from the Intangibles. Dividing the above-average earnings by the companys average cost of capital or an interest rate, one can derive an estimate of the value of its intangible assets or intellectual capital. 4. Scorecard Methods (SC) The various components of intangible assets or intellectual capital are identified and indicators and indices are generated and reported in scorecards or as graphs. SC methods are similar to DIS methods, expect that no estimate is made of the $-value of the Intangible assets. A composite index may or may not be produced. These terms Human Capital, Human Assets and Intellectual Capital are inter related. They are very much useful to HR Managers for communicating and planning human resource management strategies. As human capital has uncertainties, a firm needs to manage these uncertainties. So that they do not affect the overall performance of the organization. Firms typically respond to adverse business conditions by down sizing, thereby losing valuable human capital with potentially adverse effects on the firms performance (Cascio, 2002). Human resource practices are mechanisms through which the human capitals of the firm are acquired. Human capital helps the HR managers to keep the employees motivated, maintained and acquired. HR practices have many positive impacts on the firm. HR options are investments in the human capital pool of an organization that provide the capability to respond to future contingent events. Human resource managers deploy human capital in order to limit downside risk and create opportunities for greater returns in the future. The HR options lie in allowing the firm to respond actively to uncertainties of human assets. Many of the HR practices are aimed at building a human capital pool able to deliver returns in the current time period under current conditions. However HR practices are also aimed at building a human capital capability to respond to future uncertain events (Wright and Snell, 1998). HR practices helps to build or maintain culture and communication. A company needs its managers to manage properly its human capital and human assets under various circumstances. Risks in returns for investments in human capital cannot be ignored and to do so would result in greater, rather than less variability in relationships with employees over time. HR options generate the capability for use managing changes incriminatingly. The extent use of HR options and their usefulness will depend upon the extent of risks associated with the human capital of the firm. In conclusion, many corporations around the world have found that measuring and managing intellectual capital can provide them with a competitive advantage. Adam Smith determined that human capital in different localities is valued in different ways. Human can be developed and cultivated, but it can also decide to leave the organization, become sick, disheartened and even influence others to behave in a way that may not be to the advantage of an employer. The performance of an organizations human capital, human assets or intellectual capital is not predicable or within the control of the employer.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Security of our nation - Essay Example As a direct result of the fact that an increased level of interconnectedness and communication links diverse communities and individuals the world over, the nature and scope of existing threats to national security it might be posed by elements that would wish to do the United States harm has been drastically increased. Yet, in order to more completely understand the issues relating to domestic and international eavesdropping/spying that has been proven to exist by the leaks of whistleblower Edward Snowden and others, the following analysis will focus upon the key issues, the stakeholders involved within the scope of this espionage, and the technology involved. By regarding these issues and focusing on the political and ethical ramifications that these issues entail, the analysis will be able to pinpoint the way in which this issue is currently defined. Firstly, with regards to the key issues, it can be understood that the right and expectation to privacy is the first and most presci ent of all. Whereas constitutional scholars have argued for decades over whether or not the Constitution in and of itself guarantees or somehow implies a right to privacy, the fact of the matter is that this has come to be something of an expected norm within the American society and the way of life. As such, the revelations concerning the fact that millions upon millions of phone calls, emails, instant messages, social networks, chats, texts, and web searches are stored and analyzed by a litany of different computer algorithms and analysts has rekindled the debate and focused many individuals upon the key issue of privacy and the means through which personal information can or should be intercepted in the name of national security (Hill 19). The second key issue that exists within this particular analysis is whether or not a domestic spy agency is allowed to intercept communications of American citizens if these communications are not taking place between the individual and someone outside the country and/or taking place between American citizen and an individual who is a suspect or person of interest with regards to national security. This is the more ignored aspect of the debate. Ultimately, the intelligence agencies within the United States, the CIA, the DIA, the NSA, and a litany of others, are all bound by a central and constraining rubric. This central rubric concerns the fact that these agencies are not allowed to spy on United States is within the United States. However, the revelations of whistleblower Edward Snowden point to the fact that agency such as the NSA have flagrantly been ignoring this rule for years. In seeking to gain a greater deal of understanding with regards to the stakeholders of this particular issue, the reader can come to a simple understanding; that each and every individual within the United States and throughout the world is impacted by the actions that are being taken by the National Security Agency and other intelligence gro ups are tracking, recording, and monitoring the communications of individuals around the globe. This delineation of Ã¢â¬Å"everyoneÃ¢â¬ as a potential stakeholder in this process is underscored by the fact that recent documentation and revelations by Edward Snowden and others have pointed to the fact that the information of